Developmentalists who advocate the continuous model describe development as a relatively smooth process, without sharp or distinct stages, through which an individual must pass. Meanwhile, supporters of the discontinuous model describe development as a series of discrete stages, each of which is characterized by at least one task that an individual must accomplish before progressing to the next stage. For example, Freud, in his stage model of psychosexual development, theorized that children systematically move through oral, anal, phallic, and latency stages before reaching mature adult sexuality in the genital stage.
Legislatures and Courts History The public national discussion around same-sex marriage first began in when the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that laws denying same-sex couples the right to marry violated state constitutional equal protection rights unless the state could show a "compelling reason" for such discrimination.
Since that time, many states have taken actions to clearly define marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman and others have allowed same-sex couples to marry. Beforeseven states had laws that defined marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman.
Nebraska adopted a constitutional provision limiting marriage to relationships between a man and a woman. In AprilVermont approved landmark legislation to recognize civil unions between same-sex couples, granting them virtually all the benefits, protections and responsibilities that married couples have under Vermont law.
The Vermont legislation was a result of the state Supreme Court ruling in Baker v. The court ruled that the Vermont General Assembly must decide how to provide these benefits and protections, either by legalizing marriage for same-sex couples or by establishing an alternative system.
The Vermont General Assembly chose to preserve marriage as the "legally recognized union of one man and one woman," but at the same time create a parallel system of civil unions for same-sex couples that went beyond existing "domestic partnership" and "reciprocal beneficiaries.
The Senate then asked the court for an advisory opinion on the constitutionality of a proposed law that would bar same-sex couples from civil marriage but would create civil unions as a parallel institution, with all the same benefits, protections, rights and responsibilities under law.
In February, the court answered, "segregating same-sex unions from opposite-sex unions cannot possibly be held rationally to advance or preserve" the governmental aim of encouraging "stable adult relationships for the good of the individual and of the community, especially its children.
It was the first state to do so. InConnecticut became the second state to enact a state law providing civil unions to same-sex couples. In Octoberthe New Jersey Supreme Court ordered the legislature to redefine marriage to include same-sex couples or to establish a separate legal structure, such as civil unions, to give same-sex couples the same rights as opposite-sex marriage couples.
The New Jersey legislature chose to create civil unions inwhich gave same-sex couples the same legal rights as married, opposite sex couples. New Hampshire legislation also created civil unions inmaking it the fourth state to adopt that approach.
On May 15,the California Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples should have the right to marry.
The ruling took effect mid-June and same-sex marriages were performed in California for a short period of time before a ballot initiative challenging the decision was certified in late summer.
Proposition 8 proposed a state constitutional amendment that defined marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman.
It passed in Novemberagain banning same-sex marriage in California. Proposition 8 was challenged in earlybut the California Supreme Court upheld the law in May In Augusta federal district judge ruled that the Proposition 8 ban on same-sex marriages violated the equal protection provisions of the U.
The decision was appealed and enforcement that would allow same-sex marriages to be performed was delayed until the case could be heard by the federal appeals court. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the earlier district court decision that declared Proposition 8 invalid.
The decision reinstated the right to marriage for same-sex couples in California. The case was appealed to the U. Supreme Court and enforcement was delayed until the court decided. In Octoberthe Connecticut Supreme Court ruled that a ban against same-sex marriage was in violation of the equal protection clause in the state constitution.
Connecticut became the second state to allow same-sex marriage. Iowa began performing same-sex marriages in June In Aprilthe Vermont legislature passed a bill allowing same-sex marriage. Governor Douglas vetoed the bill, but the veto was overridden by the legislature.
Vermont became the first state where the legislature, without judicial mandate, passed a statute to allow same-sex marriage. The Maine Legislature passed and Governor Baldacci signed legislation in May allowing same sex marriage. Opponents, however, successfully petitioned a referendum on the issue for the November ballot.
Same-sex marriages were delayed, pending the ballot outcome. Voters approved the referendum, effectively repealing the law in November New Hampshire also passed same-sex marriage legislation in Junebringing the total number of states that allowed same-sex marriage to five.
In Decemberthe District of Columbia Council passed a same-sex marriage law, subject to a congressional review period. The law took effect in March In Junethe New York Assembly passed legislation allowing same-sex marriage.
Governor Andrew Cuomo immediately signed the legislation.To reflect gaps in the Human Development Index, the United Nations came out with the Human Poverty Index (HPI) in citation needed. The HPI measures the deficiencies in the three indexes of the human development index: long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.
Utilizing This Resource in the Parish. The U.S. bishops' pastoral statement Welcoming the Stranger Among Us: Unity in Diversity is firmly grounded in the Church's social teaching. Understanding and appreciating Catholic social teaching . What Is Your Stance on the Three Basic Issues of Human Development?
This exercise will help you express your own viewpoints on some of the controversies in the field of human development. Directions: The following four pairs of statements relate to basic issues about human development. Study Guide #1 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
Throughout psychological history and still in present day, three key issues remain among which developmental theorists often disagree. Particularly, often disputed is the role of early experiences on later development in opposition to current behaviour reflecting present experiences – namely the passive verses active issue.
identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.