Turing test Alan Turing  reduced the problem of defining intelligence to a simple question about conversation. A modern version of his experimental design would use an online chat roomwhere one of the participants is a real person and one of the participants is a computer program.
Philosophical background[ edit ] The question of whether it is possible for machines to think has a long history, which is firmly entrenched in the distinction between dualist and materialist views of the mind.
But it never happens that it arranges its speech in various ways, in order to reply appropriately to everything that may be said in its presence, as even the lowest type of man can do. Descartes therefore prefigures the Turing test by defining the insufficiency of appropriate linguistic response as that which separates the human from the automaton.
Descartes fails to consider the possibility that future automata might be able to overcome such insufficiency, and so does not propose the Turing test as such, even if he prefigures its conceptual framework and criterion. According to dualism, the mind is non-physical or, at the very least, has non-physical properties  and, therefore, cannot be explained in purely physical terms.
According to materialism, the mind can be explained physically, which leaves open the possibility of minds that are produced artificially.
In his book, Language, Truth and LogicAyer suggested a protocol to distinguish between a conscious man and an unconscious machine: In other words, a thing is not conscious if it fails the consciousness test. Alan Turing[ edit ] Researchers in the United Kingdom had been exploring "machine intelligence" for up to ten years prior to the founding of the field of artificial intelligence AI research in It is not difficult to devise a paper machine which will play a not very bad game of chess.
A, B and C. A and C are to be rather poor chess players, B is the operator who works the paper machine. Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves, and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine.
C may find it quite difficult to tell which he is playing. Turing chooses not to do so; instead he replaces the question with a new one, "which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. In this game both the man and the woman aim to convince the guests that they are the other.
Huma Shah argues that this two-human version of the game was presented by Turing only to introduce the reader to the machine-human question-answer test. We now ask the question, "What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?
These questions replace our original, "Can machines think? In this version, which Turing discussed in a BBC radio broadcast, a jury asks questions of a computer and the role of the computer is to make a significant proportion of the jury believe that it is really a man. If a keyword is not found, ELIZA responds either with a generic riposte or by repeating one of the earlier comments.
A group of experienced psychiatrists analysed a combination of real patients and computers running PARRY through teleprinters. Another group of 33 psychiatrists were shown transcripts of the conversations. The two groups were then asked to identify which of the "patients" were human and which were computer programs.
Searle noted that software such as ELIZA could pass the Turing test simply by manipulating symbols of which they had no understanding. Without understanding, they could not be described as "thinking" in the same sense people do.
Therefore, Searle concludes, the Turing test cannot prove that a machine can think. Loebner Prize The Loebner Prize provides an annual platform for practical Turing tests with the first competition held in November The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies in MassachusettsUnited States, organised the prizes up to and including the contest.
As Loebner described it, one reason the competition was created is to advance the state of AI research, at least in part, because no one had taken steps to implement the Turing test despite 40 years of discussing it.Minds and Machines.
Final Exam Flashcards. STUDY. physical stuff and mental stuff. Body is physical and you are not your body. you are a mind/soul which is made of mental stuff. Opposed to: Turing proposes to "replace" the question of whether machines can think with the question of whether some computer can pass the Turing test.
Can computers have a mind? Update Cancel. ad by Lambda Labs. ML workstations — fully configured. Let us save you the work.
What if the mind is a computer metaphor? Can a computer store a human mind? Ask New Question. "The question of whether Machines Can Think is about as relevant as the question of whether Submarines . Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our .
The Turing test inspired the Ebert test proposed in by film critic Roger Ebert which is a test whether a computer-based synthesised voice has sufficient skill in terms of intonations, inflections, timing and so forth, to make people laugh.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. The paper, published in in Mind, was the first to introduce his concept of what is now known as the Turing test to the general public.
The different approaches to psychology take contrasting views to whether the mind and body are separate or related.
Thinking (having freedom of choice) is a mental event, yet can cause behavior to occur (muscles move in response to a thought).