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Overview[ edit ] The concept of nature as a standard by which to make judgments is traditionally said to have begun in Greek philosophyat least as regards the Western and Middle Eastern languages and perspectives which are heavily influenced by it.
By this account, human nature really causes humans to become what they become, and so it exists somehow independently of individual humans. This in turn has been understood as also showing a special connection between human nature and divinity.
This approach understands human nature in terms of final and formal causes. In other words, nature itself or a nature-creating divinity has intentions and goals, similar somehow to human intentions and goals, and one of those goals is humanity living naturally.
Such understandings of human nature see this nature as an "idea", or " form " of a human. Against this idea of a fixed human nature, the relative malleability of man has been argued especially strongly in recent centuries—firstly by early modernists such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution has changed the nature of the discussion, supporting the proposition that mankind's ancestors were not like mankind today. Still more recent scientific perspectives—such as behaviorismdeterminismand the chemical model within modern psychiatry and psychology —claim to be neutral regarding human nature.
As in much of modern science, such disciplines seek to explain with little or no recourse to The diversity of mother nature philosophy essay causation. Classical Greek philosophy[ edit ] Main article: According to Aristotlethe philosophical study of human nature itself originated with Socrateswho turned philosophy from study of the heavens to study of the human things.
Summary: This essay is about the lessons, which one can learn from Nature about survival, success, flexibility, openness, adaptability, strength, and discipline. No one learns from failure better than Nature. No one is more flexible, adaptable, open, and resilient. Jayaram V In Hinduism, Nature. Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of arteensevilla.comgh humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural . This is the unified philosophy of nature that I set out to explicate in the first essay – nature is the source of truth, goodness, and beauty, because of its intelligible structure, and because of its production of organisms that can recognize that structure, us.
It is clear from the works of his students Plato and Xenophonand also by what was said about him by Aristotle Plato's studentthat Socrates was a rationalist and believed that the best life and the life most suited to human nature involved reasoning. The Socratic school was the dominant surviving influence in philosophical discussion in the Middle Agesamongst IslamicChristianand Jewish philosophers.
The human soul in the works of Plato and Aristotle has a divided nature, divided in a specifically human way. One part is specifically human and rational, and divided into a part which is rational on its own, and a spirited part which can understand reason.
Other parts of the soul are home to desires or passions similar to those found in animals. In both Aristotle and Plato, spiritedness thumos is distinguished from the other passions epithumiai. By this account, using one's reason is the best way to live, and philosophers are the highest types of humans.
Aristotle—Plato's most famous student—made some of the most famous and influential statements about human nature. In his works, apart from using a similar scheme of a divided human soul, some clear statements about human nature are made: Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household oikos and, in more successful cases, a clan or small village still run upon patriarchal lines.
This type of community is different in kind from a large family, and requires the special use of human reason. Man loves to use his imagination and not only to make laws and run town councils.
He says "we enjoy looking at accurate likenesses of things which are themselves painful to see, obscene beasts, for instance, and corpses. Much of Aristotle's description of human nature is still influential today.
However, the particular teleological idea that humans are "meant" or intended to be something has become much less popular in modern times.
Aristotle developed the standard presentation of this approach with his theory of four causes. Every living thing exhibits four aspects or "causes": For example, an oak tree is made of plant cells mattergrew from an acorn effectexhibits the nature of oak trees formand grows into a fully mature oak tree end.
Human nature is an example of a formal cause, according to Aristotle. Likewise, to become a fully actualized human being including fully actualizing the mind is our end.
The cultivation of learning and intellectual growth of the philosopher, which is thereby also the happiest and least painful life. In Chinese thought[ edit ] Human nature is a central question in Chinese philosophy.
Christian theology In Christian theology, there are two ways of "conceiving human nature". The first is "spiritual, Biblical, and theistic", whereas the second is "natural, cosmical, and anti-theistic".
As William James put it in his study of human nature from a religious perspective, "religion" has a "department of human nature". However, there are some "basic assertions" in all "biblical anthropology". The Bible contains no single "doctrine of human nature".
Rather, it provides material for more philosophical descriptions of human nature. Created human nature[ edit ] As originally created, the Bible describes "two elements" in human nature: By this was created a "living soul", that is, a "living person".- This essay will focus on outlining the fundamental principles of cultural diversity and how effective nursing interventions are used when providing an adequate amount of care for an individual from a culturally diverse background and how this may collide with the nursing therapeutic engagement.
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah This is the unified philosophy of nature that I set out to explicate in the first essay – nature is the source of truth, goodness, and beauty, because of its intelligible structure, and because of its production of organisms that can recognize that structure, us.
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England.
He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award. Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.
- Philosophy is defined by Webster as "Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline" or "Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.".
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of arteensevilla.comgh humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural .