Huguenot corsairs[ edit ] During the first three-quarters of the sixteenth century, matters of balance of power and dynastic succession weighed heavily on the course of European diplomacy and war. InFrance went to war with the Holy Roman Empire. Spanish troops routed French armies in France, the Italian Peninsula, and elsewhere, forcing the French Crown to surrender in and again in
GNU Free Documentation License Chapter 01 - The Crises of the Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of approximately one thousand years of history; generally accepted as spanning from the fall of the Roman Empire toward the end of the 5th century to the Protestant reformation in the 16th century.
This period began with a demographic downturn at the end of the Roman imperial era, with European populations shrinking and many cities and rural estates abandoned. A cooling climate, disease, and political disorder each played a part in this opening period which saw Classical Mediterranean civilization eclipsed.
Across Europe, there emerged smaller, more localized hybrid societies combining Roman, Christian and Germanic or Celtic barbarian influences.
|What did European Rivalries cause in World war 1||Chapter 2 European Rivalries in the Caribbean From the 15th century onwards, European countries like Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France and Britain began to build empires around the world. These nations expanded their political control, their economic systems and their cultural influence in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas.|
|The "Dark Continent"||Governments will lose over US0 million in annual tax revenues. This situation will get far worse as these heavily subsidised companies increase their production.|
|Belize, LAND OF THE FREE : A History Of Belize - A Nation in the Making||However, from the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine inthe United States gradually assumed a greater influence in the region that fit within the wider context of the growth of colonialism and the increasing struggle among powerful states to secure a dominant position in the global political economy. Given its proximity and regional hegemony, it is the United States that has been able to influence the agenda of issues that Caribbean nations face, as well as shape the context and contours of decisions made by the various governments.|
|Encounters: With whom, where and when?||With the Spanish succession crisis unresolved and looming, there were no illusions that the new century would be a quiet one.|
|FC European Imperial Expansion in Africa (c) - The Flow of History||A number of books have been written about the architecture of various indi- vidual Caribbean islands, some in considerable detail. What has not been previ- ously accomplished is to put within one cover a well-illustrated work that de- scribes the significant historic architecture of this entire area.|
By the 9th and 10th centuries, populations had reached their minima, and Europe became a largely rural and somewhat backward region. Commerce and learning flourished in the Islamic world, China and India during the same period. Islamic armies conquered Spain during the 7th and 8th centuries, but were defeated by the Frankish kingdom in when they attempted to enter France.
The turn of the first millennium saw renewed growth and activity, as kings and cities consolidated their authority and began to repopulate lands left empty by Rome's decline.
Warmer weather after allowed more land to be brought into food production. The feudal system of agriculture, where peasants were tied to their estates by obligations to local lords or to the church, provided a degree of economic stability.
This was aided by the arrival in Europe of the horse collar from Asia, which increased crop yields by allowing plows to be drawn by horse, rather than by slower oxen.
Commercial towns flourished in England, France and the Low Countries. German rulers dispatched monks and peasants to clear forests and settle in Eastern Europe and the Baltic regions. The city-states of northern Italy rose in wealth and influence. Islamic Spain became a center of learning and culture where Christians, Muslims and Jews coexisted in relative amity.
Despite many local wars and disputes between knights, the High Middle Ages, from —, saw growing populations and prosperity enough to build great cathedrals and send European armies abroad on crusades.
Afterdemographic stagnation emerged. Population growth slowed or stopped as the limits of medieval agriculture were reached. Major conflicts between powerful kingdoms, such as the Hundred Years' War between England and France, became more frequent.
The Christian church, previously secure in its spiritual authority, was racked by schisms and increasing financial corruption.
The year saw a catastrophe as the virulent bubonic plague the "Black Death"entered Italy, carried by ships from Asia.
It spread across the continent over three years killing, by some estimates, one-third of all Europeans. Many believed it was the end of the world foretold by Christian myth. Along with its suffering, the plague wrought economic havoc, driving up the cost of labor and making the old feudal system untenable, as surviving peasants scorned its demands.
The following century and a half transformed Europe from a patchwork of feudal fiefdoms, under loose royal and church control, into a collection of newborn but increasingly unified national states.
Towns became centers of resistance and dissent to the old royal and church authorities. Former noble and knightly influence declined, and rulers realigned themselves toward the increasingly wealthy and influential burgher and merchant classes.
Emergence of the printing press and spreading literacy, increased religious and political conflict in many countries. ByChristopher Columbus had sailed across the ocean to the New World, and Martin Luther was about to challenge the authority of the Roman Papacy and its right to award dispensation of sins for money.
These developments opened the modern era of history, and brought the Middle Ages to their true end.
A number of modern institutions have their roots in the Middle Ages. The concept of nation-states with strong central governmental power stems from the consolidation of powers by some kings of the Middle Ages.
These kings formed royal courts, appointed sheriffs, formed royal armies, and began to collect taxes - all concepts central to modern government. A leading example was the French kingdom, ruled by the Capetian dynasty from until the early 14th century.
French provincial nobles and their castles and knights were brought under effective royal control during this time, and national unity benefited. Conversely Germany, which had strong kings in the 10th and early 11th centuries, suffered a series of political conflicts during the High Middle Ages between rulers and the Church, which weakened national cohesion and elevated regional lords to great influence.
During the Middle Ages, Kings originally called Parliaments to explain their policies and ask for money. Parliaments at this time represented the three collective estates - the clergy, nobles, and merchants - not individuals.Struggle for the American Mediterranean: United States-European Rivalry in the Gulf-Caribbean, – By Lester D.
Langley. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, xii + pp. Maps, notes, bibliographical essay, and index. $). European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus and the Spanish South America, and the Caribbean.
The Spanish Empire, along with neighboring Portugal, launched the period known in European history as the Age of Discovery or the Age of Exploration. Compared to Christopher Columbus (1 –) was born in Genoa, in modern-day. Effects of Colonization. By intractable conflict is found in many areas that were once colonized or controlled by Western European or Soviet powers (i.e., Africa, the Balkans, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, South America).
Imperialist policies promoted ethnic rivalry by favoring one group above the others, distributed resources in an. European Settlement and Rivalry From Columbus to Toussaint. Hilary Beckles. Harcourt Education, Jan 1, - Caribbean Area - 56 pages. Hist Political Economy and European Imperial Rivalry.
France, and the African and Caribbean Colonies, The Political Economy of Empire in the Early Modern World, eds. Sophus Reinert and Pernille Røge (Palgrave Macmillan, October ) Research Interests.
As the two giants stare each other down in the Himalayas, the real conflict may erupt at sea.