Is it the responsibility of an individual's genetic makeup that makes them a criminal or is it the environment in which they are raised that determines their outcome?
What Does It Really Mean? A diagnosis of borderline personality disorder could, theoretically, mean that the psychiatrist made a serious attempt at evaluating defense mechanisms and ego integrity; or at least a matching of symptoms to DSM criteria. It's theoretically possible, yes.
Let's assume there's a difference between a diagnosis and a heuristic. A diagnosis is based on pathology, or at least on a set of predetermined criteria. I diagnosis must be both reliable-- multiple doctors would find the same diagnosis when given the same information, and valid-- the diagnosis actually is the thing you say it is.
Many psychiatrists devalue diagnoses into heuristics, that is, they have intuitive "rules of thumb" that are extensions of their own cognitive biases. This isn't automatically good or bad; the heuristic is only as helpful as the bias.
For example, if the last ten people who you saw that smoked crack also had syphilis, on the 11th you might apply the heuristic, "where there's crack, so there be syphilis, better get a blood test.
The diagnosis of a personality disorder is supposed to be valid, it's supposed to mean something. However, in general they are diagnosed very unrigorously, if such a thing can be imagined of psychiatrists.
A good example is borderline. If a psychiatrist calls it borderline, it may or may not be, actually, borderline personality, a la Kernberg. So if a patient happens to know she was diagnosed with borderline which she rarely will-- it's kept secret or encoded as "bipolar" it doesn't mean she can look it up on the internet for more information, because that's not what the psychiatrist meant by the diagnosis.
In that case, the word suddenly means something completely different than it ordinarily does: But white people know exactly what it means in that context. Those "things" however, are uncoupled from the "official" diagnosis.
The heuristic may have a lot, or absolutely no, relationship to the diagnosis. In other words, the term "borderline" is immensely reliable among psychiatrists, but not at all between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists, who think it means something else. What psychiatrists should have done is invented their own special word for the heuristic of "borderline.
So, as a public service, I'll tell you what psychiatrists mean when they say borderline. Once again, I'm saying that this is how the diagnosis is used by many psychiatrists. If you email me and say that I'm a jerk for not understanding the term, then you need to go buy yourself a helmet. First, borderline is a heuristic of countertransference: Second, borderline is meant as a synonym for any of the following: Third, it is generally reserved for the following four types: Very attractive female, who comes for problems the psychiatrist considers ordinary: It is diagnosed here most often by female psychiatrists, and carries the connotation: The implications are lack of self-control, and reliance on external supports.
Thin female with a lot of anger. By example, the woman who comes for treatment of "depression" but describes most life events in terms of attacks, sleights, harm, etc-- i. If you are a patient, my point in telling you this iss not "why did they diagnose me with borderline?
But her anger makes the psychiatrist uncomfortable, so it gets labeled as borderline. The above 3 female doesn't need limit setting, she needs mirroring transference, etc. And don't forget about the narcissistic injury. But again, even though the term is used improperly and probably leads to worse treatment for the patient, it does mean the same wrong thing to most psychiatrists.
So when I'm being referred a "30 year old borderline," I know almost exactly what I'm getting, even though it has nothing to do with borderline. But the sleight of hand is that it sounds like personality disorders are crappy and unreliable diagnoses and have little in common with their original meaning.
In fact, most psychiatric diagnosis are equally crappy and unreliable. When you read articles saying "borderline is a pejorative term, and these patients are often really bipolar" what you need to understand is that "bipolar" is not a more valid or reliable diagnosis, it's simply another heuristic.
It isn't less pejorative, it isn't more "real.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
This paper proposes that physical appearance is a major factor in the development of personality, because people form opinions by what they see in a person physically, and . Personality Essay Every human being has a personality that will determine the limits of success.
In order to understand what personality is let first define personality. According to the dictionary the definition of personality is the stable difference between people in the social, emotional and motivational characteristics.
Finding any real "personality" genes is decades away. But researchers have a good start. In fact, more researchers are jumping into the complex fray of behavioral genetics each year, fueled by the hope that identifying genes related to personality traits will not only help them better understand.
It is important to note that the term heritability refers only to the degree of genetic variation between people on a trait. It does not refer to the degree to which a trait of a particular individual is due to environmental or genetic factors. Some claim that these studies support the notion of a genetic basis to criminal behavior (Tehrani & Mednick, ).
On the other hand, some have concluded that there is not enough evidence from these twin, family, and adoption studies to profess that genetics do play a role in antisocial or criminal behavior (Lowenstein, ).