Debate papers stem cell research

And, for the health professionals who serve them. Many topics and insights I would now include are missing. The original concept of this treatise was to look at the main existing scientific theories of aging, see what they have in common, see what each has to say about steps that could be taken to halt or delay aging, and combine these steps into an overall "antiaging firewall.

Debate papers stem cell research

Reprogramming A scheme of the generation of induced pluripotent stem IPS cells. Red cells indicate the cells expressing the exogenous genes. The original set of reprogramming factors also dubbed Yamanaka factors are the transcription factors Oct4 Pou5f1Sox2cMycand Klf4.

While this combination is most conventional in producing iPSCs, each of the factors can be functionally replaced by related transcription factors, miRNAssmall molecules, or even non-related genes such as lineage specifiers. However, considerable advances have been made in improving the efficiency and the time it takes to obtain iPSCs.

Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes.

They chose twenty-four genes previously identified as important in ESCs and used retroviruses to deliver these genes to mouse fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15could be isolated using antibiotic selection.

Upon delivery of all twenty-four factors, ESC-like colonies emerged that reactivated the Fbx15 reporter and could propagate indefinitely.

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To identify the genes necessary for reprogramming, the researchers removed one factor at a time from the pool of twenty-four. By this process, they identified four factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, which were each necessary and together sufficient to generate ESC-like colonies under selection for reactivation of Fbx These second-generation iPSCs were derived from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral-mediated expression of the same four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, Klf4.

However, instead of using Fbx15 to select for pluripotent cells, the researchers used Nanoga gene that is functionally important in ESCs.

Additional genes, however, including certain members of the Klf family Klf1, Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5the Myc family c-myc, L-myc, and N-mycNanogand LIN28have been identified to increase the induction efficiency.

While Sox2 was the initial gene used for induction by Yamanaka et al. Sox1 yields iPS cells with a similar efficiency as Sox2, and genes Sox3Sox15and Sox18 also generate iPS cells, although with decreased efficiency.

Klf4 of the Klf family of transcription factors was initially identified by Yamanaka et al. However, Thomson et al. Klf2 and Klf4 were found to be factors capable of generating iPS cells, and related genes Klf1 and Klf5 did as well, although with reduced efficiency.

Debate papers stem cell research

The Myc family of transcription factors are proto-oncogenes implicated in cancer. N-myc and L-myc have been identified to induce instead of c-myc with similar efficiency.

Therefore, it was surprising when Yamanaka et al. LIN28 is an mRNA binding protein [21] expressed in embryonic stem cells and embryonic carcinoma cells associated with differentiation and proliferation.

It poses numerous advantages when used instead of C-myc. However, recently a path was found for efficient reprogramming which required downregulation of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation NuRD complex.

Plasmidsadenovirusesand transposon vectors have all been explored, but these often come with the tradeoff of lower throughput.

Depending on the methods used, reprogramming of adult cells to obtain iPSCs may pose significant risks that could limit their use in humans. For example, if viruses are used to genomically alter the cells, the expression of oncogenes cancer-causing genes may potentially be triggered.Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.

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Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (March ). Cloning. In biology, the activity of cloning creates a copy of some biological entity such as a gene, a cell, or perhaps an entire organism. This article discusses the biological, historical, and moral aspects of cloning mammals. The main area of concentration is the moral dimensions of reproductive cloning, specifically the use of cloning in order to procreate.

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"The point of this discussion is to highlight the fact that from the beginning the emphasis of the Christian doctrine of creation, following the emphasis of the Bible, has been on the relationship between God and the world.

Debate papers stem cell research

Questions about how or when God created the world have been secondary issues. When the early theologians came up with the formula that ‘God created the world out of.

A conservative political consultant wants to end government funding for research involving animal subjects. Scientists call that a dangerous game.

Americans Heading to Costa Rica For Stem Cell Treatments |