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Slavery in Brazil There seems to be no easy explanation of why slaves were not employed as wage workers at the abolition of slavery.
One possibility is the influence of race-based ideas from the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which were based on theories of White superiority. On the other hand, Brazilian latifundiaries had been using slave manpower for centuries, with no complaints about the quality of this workforce, and there were not important changes in Brazilian economy or work processes that could justify such sudden preoccupation with the "race" of the labourers.
Their embracing of those new identitarian ideas, moreover, proved quite flexible, even opportunist: An important, and usually ignored, part of Comparative analysis ethnic identities and self perception equation was the political situation in Brazil, during the final crisis of slavery.
The massive flight of slaves from several fazendas threatens, in some places in the province, public order, alarming the proprietaries and the productive classes. Fights were happening in daylight, guns were spotted among the fugitives, who, instead of hiding from police, seemed ready to engage in confrontation.
Slavery ended because slaves no longer wanted to be slaves, because slaves rebelled against their masters and against the law that enslaved them In this respect, what was new in "immigration to Brazil" was not the "immigration", but the "to Brazil" part.
As Wilson do Nascimento Barbosa puts it, The collapse of slavery was the economic result of three conjugated movements: Immigration to Brazil As the Brazilian elites perceived the oncoming abolition of slavery as a problem, various alternatives were discussed.
While very few remained stuck with the idea of preserving slavery, some[ who? It was against these positions, not against any imaginary African immigration, that racial arguments were made.
So, besides a dispute "immigrantists" and "anti-immigrantists", there was also a debate between pro-Chinese and pro-European immigrantists; the latter also were divided between those, like Nicolau Moreira, who defended not only European immigration, but also a land reform, so to attract immigrants as small farmers, and those[ who?
The goal was to "whiten" Brazil through new immigrants and through future miscegenation in which former slaves would disappear by becoming "whiter". Although discussions were situated in a theoretical field, immigrants arrived and colonies were founded through all this period the rule of Pedro IIespecially from on, particularly in the Southeast and Southern Brazil.
This decree remained valid until October 5, when, due to pressures of coffee planters interested in cheap manpower, it was overturned by Law Later immigration, from on, was not so much influenced by that race discussions and Brazil attracted, besides Europeans, more immigrants from LebanonSyria and Japan, for example[ citation needed ].
Oliveira Vianna and the ideology of "Whitening"[ edit ] See also: Racial whitening and Mongrel complex The Brazilian government, as was commonplace at that time, endorsed positions expressed by Brazilian intellectuals.
An example is a text, written by Oliveira Viannathat was issued as introductory material to Census results. According to the text, written by Oliveira Vianna, the first Portuguese colonists who came to Brazil were part of the blond Germanic nobility that ruled Portugal, while the dark-haired "poor" Portuguese only came to Brazil later, in the 17th and especially the 18th century.
The painting depicts a black grandmother, mulatta mother, white father and their quadroon child, hence three generations of hypergamy through racial whitening.
On the other hand, the Portuguese of darker complexions were of Celtic or Iberian origin and came when the Portuguese settlement in Brazil was already well established, because, according to him, "The peninsular brachyoids, of Celtic race, or the dolicoides, of Iberian race, of sedentary habits and peaceful nature, did not have, of course, that mobility nor that bellicosity nor that spirit of adventure and conquest".
The book appeared at a moment when there was a widespread belief among social scientists that some races were superior to other ones, and in the same period when the Nazi Party in Germany was on the rise.
In this book, Freyre argued against the idea that Brazil would have an "inferior race" because of the race-mixing. Then, he pointed the positive elements that permeate the Brazilian cultural formation because of miscegenation especially between Portuguese, Indians and blacks.
This theory was later challenged by several anthropologists who claim that, despite the race-mixing, the white Brazilian population still occupies the top of the Brazilian society, while Blacks, Indians and mixed-race people are largely found in the poor population.
He repeated several times that he did not create the myth of a racial democracy and that the fact that his books recognized the intense mixing between "races" in Brazil did not mean a lack of prejudice or discrimination.
He pointed out that many people have claimed the United States to have been an "exemplary democracy" whereas slavery and racial segregation were present throughout most of the history of the United States.
What I have always suggested is that such prejudice is minimal But no one here would have thought of "white-only" Churches. No one in Brazil would have thought of laws against interracial marriage Fraternal spirit is stronger among Brazilians than racial prejudice, colour, class or religion.
It is true that equality has not been reached since the end of slaveryEngaging in discussions on issues about the environment, race, gender, class, health, and citizenship, we will appreciate a variety of human beliefs and norms affecting human self-perception.
GE Literature and Diversity: Global Studies. The Image of Jews in Contemporary China (Jewish Identities in Post-Modern Society). These listings present course details relevant to the current academic semester; however, not all courses listed are offered during the current semester.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The Brazilian population was formed by the influx of Portuguese settlers and African slaves, mostly Bantu and West African populations (such as the Yoruba, Ewe, and Fanti-Ashanti), into a territory inhabited by various indigenous tribal populations, mainly Tupi, Guarani and Ge In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in what is known as Great Immigration, new groups arrived, mainly of.
Ethnic conflicts are world-wide phenomena producing discrimination, violence, and at times, unspeakable atrocities. Two thirds of international conflicts today are ethnopolitical conflicts.